Research/Areas of Interest: I no longer accept graduate students. Our lab studied the regulation of gene transcription in spore-forming bacteria (Bacillus subtilis and Clostridium difficile) and related Gram-positive bacteria. We were interested in the nutritional signals that the cell senses as an indication that it must move from active growth to differentiation and the molecular mechanisms by which these signals are used to control expression of specific stationary phase, sporulation and virulence genes.


  • PhD, Biology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, United States, 1970
  • AB, Biochemistry, Princeton University, United States, 1965