I work in collaboration with Ana Soto and her laboratory. Our laboratory works on the control of the initiation of the proliferation of estrogen-target cells. This basic biological question is explored under the fundamental premise that proliferation is the default state of all living cells. We have identified several plasma-borne and endogenously generated inhibitors of cell proliferation. In collaboration with Dr. Ana M. Soto, we have proposed the tissue organization field theory of carcinogenesis, which proposes that carcinogenesis is a tissue-based phenomenon. This notion challenges the one embodied in the somatic mutation theory of carcinogenesis, which posits that an accumulation of mutations in a single cell is responsible for the causation of a neoplasia.